Anterior cruciate ligament is one of the four major ligaments that connects bones of the knee joint located in the middle of the knee. It provides rotational and anterior stability to the knee joint. The ACL is particularly vulnerable to injuries during contact sports, football, rugby, basketball, and athletes of all levels. ACL tear can be partial or complete, depending upon the severity of the injury. Patient usually presents with popping sound at the time of injury, pain and swelling, locking of the knee, and knee instability.
Acute injury of the ACL can be managed initially with rest, ice, compression, elevation, and it is strongly recommended to visit an orthopedic surgeon and it can easily be diagnosed on clinical examination.
Investigations required are x-ray and MRI scan which is the gold standard to diagnose ACL injuries.
The options of treatment is conservative with pain management, ACL rehabilitation, but if patient is doing sports activity, he requires ACL surgery. ACL type of injury is partial tear or complete tear.
Partial tear can be treated with single bundle ACL reconstruction. ACL augmentation with Regenerative cell and additional support with rehabilitation.
ACL reconstruction can be done straightforward with various graft which use hamstring bone patella tendon and quadriceps.
The outcome of ACL surgery is good and patient return back to sports activity in 7 to 9 months.